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如何翻译典型的法律禁令句型

作者:江苏翻译小编(南京翻译公司) 发布时间:2021-01-09 16:42     浏览量:
我们知道在法律条文中有很多特殊的句式分类。如表达禁止性规范的“不得”字句、“禁止”字句、“处”字句等;表达授权性规范的“可”字句、“有”字句、“行使”字句等;表达义务性规范的“应”字句、“须”字句等。每种法律规范的表达都有其特有的句式,今天小编就为你奉上表达禁止性规范的4种典型句型翻译。
 
典型法律禁令句型翻译之一:“不得”字句
 
用“不得”字句表达禁止性规范,庄重严肃,简洁明了。“不得”一般译作shall not, 然而“不能”常译为may not,这和英文中一些否定表达方法对应一致,故不再重复。注意要根据实际情况来选择程度不同的否定表达方式。
 
例1:没收财产是没收犯罪分子个人所有财产的一部分或者全部。在判处没收财产的时候,不得没收属于犯罪分子家属所有或者应有的财产。(刑法第五十九条)
  
参考译文:
Confiscation of property refers to the confiscation of part of all of the property personally owned by a criminal. When a sentence of confiscation of property is imposed, property that the criminal’s family member owns or should own shall not be subject to confiscation.
(与“不得”语义相近的还有“不许,不准,不能”等)
  
例2:判决宣告以前一人犯数罪的,除判处死刑和无期徒刑的以外,应当在总和刑期以下、数刑中最高刑期以上,酌情决定执行的刑期;但是管制最高不能超过三年,拘役最高不能超过一年,有期徒刑最高不能超过二十年。
  
参考译文:
For a criminal who commits several crimes before a judgment is pronounced, unless he is sentenced to death or life imprisonment, his term of punishment shall be decided in such a way that it may not exceed the total of the terms for all the crimes and must be longer than the maximum term for any one of the crimes, depending on the circumstances of each case. However, the term of public surveillance may not exceed three years, the term of criminal detention may not exceed one year, and fixed-term imprisonment may not exceed twenty years.
 
法律合同翻译

典型法律禁令句型翻译之二:“禁止”字句

 
“禁止”字句在汉译英的过程中通常译为be prohibited 句式。
 
例1: 禁止证券交易内幕信息的知情人和非法获取内幕信息的人利用内幕信息从事证券交易活动。
 
参考译文:
Persons possessing inside information relating to securities trading and persons obtaining such information unlawfully are prohibited from making use of such inside information in securities trading activities.
 
例2:禁止任何人利用任何手段扰乱社会秩序。扰乱社会秩序情节严重,致使工作、生产、营业和教学、科研无法进行,国家和社会遭受严重损失的,对首要分子处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利。
 
参考译文:
It shall be prohibited for anyone to disturb public order by any means. If the circumstances of the public disturbance are so serious that work, production, business, education or scientific research cannot be conducted and the state and society suffer serious losses, the ringleaders shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, criminal detention, public surveillance or deprivation of political rights.
 
律师事务所

典型法律禁令句型翻译之三:“处”字句

 
用“处”字句表示禁止性规范有以下两个特点:其一,在语义上,与“不得”字句不同的是,它用具体的制裁来表示禁令。其二,在结构上,主语往往为“的”字结构,突出犯罪主体或犯罪行为;谓语部分的“处”字突出对犯罪主体或犯罪行为的处置。
 
“处”字句一般为被动句,为使行为简洁,实施(司法机关)一般不出现。有时为了使语义明确,实施(司法机关)也可以出现,通常译为be sentenced to句式。
 
例1:策动、勾引、收买国家工作人员、武装部队、人民警察、民兵投敌叛变或者叛乱的,处无期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑。(刑法第九十三条)
 
参考译文:
Whoever instigates lures or bribes a state functionary or a member of the armed forces, the people’s police or the people’s militia to defect to the enemy and turn traitor or to rise in rebellion shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years.
 
典型法律禁令句型翻译之四:“是”字句
 
“是”字句规定什么行为是犯罪,语气坚决,表达禁止性规范庄重简练。与“处”字句不同的是,它不表述具体的处罚。常译为refer to,用来解释说明。
 
例1:明知自己的行为会发生危害社会的后果,并且希望或者放任这种结果发生,因而构成犯罪的,是故意犯罪。(刑法第十四条)
 
参考译文:
An intentional crime refers to a crime committed by a person who clearly knows that his act will produce socially dangerous consequences but who wishes or allows such consequences to occur.
 
例2:组织、领导犯罪集团进行犯罪活动的或者在共同犯罪中起主要作用的,是主犯。对于主犯,除本法分则已有规定的以外,应当从重处罚。(刑法第二十三条)
 
参考译文:
A principal criminal refers to any person who organizes and leads a criminal group in carrying out criminal activities or plays a principal role in a joint crime. A principal criminal shall be given a heavier punishment unless otherwise provided for in the specific provisions of this Law.
 
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